Mathematics
In Kindergarten, instructional time should focus on two critical areas: (1) representing, relating, and operating on whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; (2) describing shapes and space. More learning time in Kindergarten should be devoted to number than to other topics.
 Students use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set; counting out a given number of objects; comparing sets or numerals; and modeling simple joining and separating situations with sets of objects, or eventually with equations such as 5+2=7 and 7–2=5. (Kindergarten students should see addition and subtraction equations, and student writing of equations in kindergarten is encouraged, but it is not required.) Students choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the cardinalities of small sets of objects, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number of objects in combined sets, or counting the number of objects that remain in a set after some are taken away.
 Students describe their physical world using geometric ideas (e.g., shape, orientation, spatial relations) and vocabulary. They identify, name, and describe basic twodimensional shapes, such as squares, triangles, circles, rectangles, and hexagons, presented in a variety of ways (e.g., with different sizes and orientations), as well as threedimensional shapes such as cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres. They use basic shapes and spatial reasoning to model objects in their environment and to construct more complex shapes.
Grade K Mathematics Overview
Counting and Cardinality
 Know number names and the count sequence.
 Count to tell the number of objects.
 Compare numbers.
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
 Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Work with numbers 11–19 to gain foundations for place value.
Measurement and data
 Describe and compare measurable attributes.
 Classify objects and count the number of objects in categories.
Geometry
 Identify and describe shapes.
 Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20; (2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones; (3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and (4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.
 Students develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small numbers. They use a variety of models, including discrete objects and lengthbased models (e.g., cubes connected to form lengths), to model addto, takefrom, puttogether, takeapart, and compare situations to develop meaning for the operations of addition and subtraction, and to develop strategies to solve arithmetic problems with these operations. Students understand connections between counting and addition and subtraction (e.g., adding two is the same as counting on two). They use properties of addition to add whole numbers and to create and use increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties (e.g., “making tens”) to solve addition and subtraction problems within 20. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, children build their understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.
 Students develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add within 100 and subtract multiples of 10. They compare whole numbers (at least to 100) to develop understanding of and solve problems involving their relative sizes. They think of whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones (especially recognizing the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and some ones). Through activities that build number sense, they understand the order of the counting numbers and their relative magnitudes.
 Students develop an understanding of the meaning and processes of measurement, including underlying concepts such as iterating (the mental activity of building up the length of an object with equalsized units) and the transitivity principle for indirect measurement.
 Students compose and decompose plane or solid figures (e.g., put two triangles together to make a quadrilateral) and build understanding of partwhole relationships as well as the properties of the original and composite shapes. As they combine shapes, they recognize them from different perspectives and orientations, describe their geometric attributes, and determine how they are alike and different, to develop the background for measurement and for initial understandings of properties such as congruence and symmetry.
Grade 1 Mathematics Overview
Operations and Algebraic thinking
 Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
 Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
 Add and subtract within 20.
 Work with addition and subtraction equations.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Extend the counting sequence.
 Understand place value.
 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
Measurement and Data
 Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units.
 Tell and write time.
 Represent and interpret data.
Geometry
 Reason with shapes and their attributes.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 2, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) extending understanding of baseten notation; (2) building fluency with addition and subtraction; (3) using standard units of measure; and (4) describing and analyzing shapes.
 Students extend their understanding of the baseten system. This includes ideas of counting in fives, tens, and multiples of hundreds, tens, and ones, as well as number relationships involving these units, including comparing. Students understand multidigit numbers (up to 1000) written in baseten notation, recognizing that the digits in each place represent amounts of thousands, hundreds, tens, or ones (e.g., 853 is 8 hundreds + 5 tens + 3 ones).
 Students use their understanding of addition to develop fluency with addition and subtraction within 100. They solve problems within 1000 by applying their understanding of models for addition and subtraction, and they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute sums and differences of whole numbers in baseten notation, using their understanding of place value and the properties of operations. They select and accurately apply methods that are appropriate for the context and the numbers involved to mentally calculate sums and differences for numbers with only tens or only hundreds.
 Students recognize the need for standard units of measure (centimeter and inch) and they use rulers and other measurement tools with the understanding that linear measure involves an iteration of units. They recognize that the smaller the unit, the more iterations they need to cover a given length.
 Students describe and analyze shapes by examining their sides and angles. Students investigate, describe, and reason about decomposing and combining shapes to make other shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing two and threedimensional shapes, students develop a foundation for understanding area, volume, congruence, similarity, and symmetry in later grades.
Grade 2 Mathematics Overview
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
 Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
 Add and subtract within 20.
 Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Understand place value.
 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
Measurement and Data
 Measure and estimate lengths in standard units.
 Relate addition and subtraction to length.
 Work with time and money.
 Represent and interpret data.
Geometry
 Reason with shapes and their attributes.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and division and strategies for multiplication and division within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions, especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) developing understanding of the structure of rectangular arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing twodimensional shapes.
 Students develop an understanding of the meanings of multiplication and division of whole numbers through activities and problems involving equalsized groups, arrays, and area models; multiplication is finding an unknown product, and division is finding an unknown factor in these situations. For equalsized group situations, division can require finding the unknown number of groups or the unknown group size. Students use properties of operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties to solve multiplication and division problems involving singledigit factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students learn the relationship between multiplication and division.
 Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with unit fractions. Students view fractions in general as being built out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. For example, 1/2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less paint than 1/3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1/3 of a ribbon is longer than 1/5 of the same ribbon because when the ribbon is divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the ribbon is divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than, and greater than one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using visual fraction models and strategies based on noticing equal numerators or denominators.
 Students recognize area as an attribute of twodimensional regions. They measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of samesize units of area required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps, a square with sides of unit length being the standard unit for measuring area. Students understand that rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into identical columns. By decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and justify using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.
 Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of twodimensional shapes. They compare and classify shapes by their sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes. Students also relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of the whole.
Grade 3 Mathematics Overview
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
 Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.
 Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.
 Multiply and divide within 100.
 Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic.
Number and OperationsFractions
 Develop understanding of fractions as numbers.
Measurement and Data
 Solve problems involving measurement and estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.
 Represent and interpret data.
 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.
 Geometric measurement: recognize perimeter as an attribute of plane figures and distinguish between linear and area measures.
Geometry
 Reason with shapes and their attributes.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 4, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing understanding and fluency with multidigit multiplication, and developing understanding of dividing to find quotients involving multidigit dividends; (2) developing an understanding of fraction equivalence, addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators, and multiplication of fractions by whole numbers; (3) understanding that geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties, such as having parallel sides, perpendicular sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry.
 Students generalize their understanding of place value to 1,000,000, understanding the relative sizes of numbers in each place. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (equalsized groups, arrays, area models), place value, and properties of operations, in particular the distributive property, as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to compute products of multidigit whole numbers. Depending on the numbers and the context, they select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate or mentally calculate products. They develop fluency with efficient procedures for multiplying whole numbers; understand and explain why the procedures work based on place value and properties of operations; and use them to solve problems. Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties of operations, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multidigit dividends. They select and accurately apply appropriate methods to estimate and mentally calculate quotients, and interpret remainders based upon the context.
 Students develop understanding of fraction equivalence and operations with fractions. They recognize that two different fractions can be equal (e.g., 15/9 = 5/3), and they develop methods for generating and recognizing equivalent fractions. Students extend previous understandings about how fractions are built from unit fractions, composing fractions from unit fractions, decomposing fractions into unit fractions, and using the meaning of fractions and the meaning of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.
 Students describe, analyze, compare, and classify twodimensional shapes. Through building, drawing, and analyzing twodimensional shapes, students deepen their understanding of properties of twodimensional objects and the use of them to solve problems involving symmetry.
Grade 4 overview
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
 Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.
 Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.
 Generate and analyze patterns.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Generalize place value understanding for multi digit whole numbers.
 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multidigit arithmetic.
Number and OperationsFractions
 Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
 Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.
 Understand decimal notation for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
Measurement and Data
 Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
Represent and interpret data.
 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
Geometry
 Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.

 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 5, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) developing fluency with addition and subtraction of fractions, and developing understanding of the multiplication of fractions and of division of fractions in limited cases (unit fractions divided by whole numbers and whole numbers divided by unit fractions); (2) extending division to 2digit divisors, integrating decimal fractions into the place value system and developing understanding of operations with decimals to hundredths, and developing fluency with whole number and decimal operations; and (3) developing understanding of volume.
 Students apply their understanding of fractions and fraction models to represent the addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators as equivalent calculations with like denominators. They develop fluency in calculating sums and differences of fractions, and make reasonable estimates of them. Students also use the meaning of fractions, of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing fractions make sense. (Note: this is limited to the case of dividing unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions.)
 Students develop understanding of why division procedures work based on the meaning of baseten numerals and properties of operations. They finalize fluency with multidigit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. They apply their understandings of models for decimals, decimal notation, and properties of operations to add and subtract decimals to hundredths. They develop fluency in these computations, and make reasonable estimates of their results. Students use the relationship between decimals and fractions, as well as the relationship between finite decimals and whole numbers (i.e., a finite decimal multiplied by an appropriate power of 10 is a whole number), to understand and explain why the procedures for multiplying and dividing finite decimals make sense. They compute products and quotients of decimals to hundredths efficiently and accurately.
 Students recognize volume as an attribute of threedimensional space. They understand that volume can be measured by finding the total number of samesize units of volume required to fill the space without gaps or overlaps. They understand that a 1unit by 1unit by 1unit cube is the standard unit for measuring volume. They select appropriate units, strategies, and tools for solving problems that involve estimating and measuring volume. They decompose threedimensional shapes and find volumes of right rectangular prisms by viewing them as decomposed into layers of arrays of cubes. They measure necessary attributes of shapes in order to determine volumes to solve real world and mathematical problems.
Grade 5 Overview
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
 Write and interpret numerical expressions.
 Analyze patterns and relationships.
Number and Operations in Base Ten
 Understand the place value system.
 Perform operations with multidigit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.
Number and OperationsFractions
 Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.
Measurement and Data
 Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.
Represent and interpret data.
 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition.
Geometry
 Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve realworld and mathematical problems.
 Classify twodimensional figures into categories based on their properties.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
Mathematics
In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking.
 Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from, and extending, pairs of rows (or columns) in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Thus students expand the scope of problems for which they can use multiplication and division to solve problems, and they connect ratios and fractions. Students solve a wide variety of problems involving ratios and rates.
 Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers. They reason about the order and absolute value of rational numbers and about the location of points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane.
 Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Students use properties of operations and the idea of maintaining the equality of both sides of an equation to solve simple onestep equations. Students construct and analyze tables, such as tables of quantities that are in equivalent ratios, and they use equations (such as 3x = y) to describe relationships between quantities.
 Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value. The mean measures center in the sense that it is the value that each data point would take on if the total of the data values were redistributed equally, and also in the sense that it is a balance point. Students recognize that a measure of variability (interquartile range or mean absolute deviation) can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different sets of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability. Students learn to describe and summarize numerical data sets, identifying clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry considering the context in which the data were collected. Students in Grade 6 also build on their work with area in elementary school by reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume. They find areas of right triangles, other triangles, and special quadrilaterals by decomposing these shapes, rearranging or removing pieces, and relating the shapes to rectangles. Using these methods, students discuss, develop, and justify formulas for areas of triangles and parallelograms. Students find areas of polygons and surface areas of prisms and pyramids by decomposing them into pieces whose area they can determine. They reason about right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths to extend formulas for the volume of a right rectangular prism to fractional side lengths. They prepare for work on scale drawings and constructions in Grade 7 by drawing polygons in the coordinate plane.
Grade 6 Overview
Ratios and Proportional Relationships
 Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.
The Number System
 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.
 Compute fluently with multidigit numbers and find common factors and multiples.
 Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.
Expressions and equations
 Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
 Reason about and solve onevariable equations and inequalities.
 Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Geometry
 Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
Statistics and Probability
 Develop understanding of statistical variability.
 Summarize and describe distributions.
Mathematical Practices
 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
 Model with mathematics.
 Use appropriate tools strategically.
 Attend to precision.
 Look for and make use of structure.
 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
